O. Diamanti, C. Barnes, S. Paris, E. Shechtman, O. Sorkine-Hornung, Synthesis of Complex Image Appearance from Limited Exemplars, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Volume 34 Issue 2, February 2015.


Editing materials in photos opens up numerous opportunities like turning an unappealing dirt ground into luscious grass and creating a comfortable wool sweater in place of a cheap t-shirt. However, such edits are challenging. Approaches such as 3D rendering and BTF rendering can represent virtually everything, but they are also data intensive and computationally expensive, which makes user interaction difficult. Leaner methods such as texture synthesis are more easily controllable by artists, but also more limited in the range of materials that they handle, for example, grass and wool are typically problematic because of their non-Lambertian reflectance and numerous self-occlusions. We propose a new approach for editing of complex materials in photographs. We extend the texture-by-numbers approach with ideas from texture interpolation. The inputs to our method are coarse user annotation maps that specify the desired output, such as the local scale of the material and the illumination direction. Our algorithm then synthesizes the output from a discrete set of annotated exemplars. A key component of our method is that it can cope with missing data, interpolating information from the available exemplars when needed. This enables production of satisfying results involving materials with complex appearance variations such as foliage, carpet, and fabric from only one or a couple of exemplar photographs.


author = {Olga Diamanti and Connelly Barnes and Sylvain Paris and Eli Shechtman and Olga Sorkine-Hornung},
title = {Synthesis of Complex Image Appearance from Limited Exemplars},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
volume = {34},
number = {2},
year = {2015},