L. Guibas, A. Nguyen, D. Russel, and L. Zhang, Collision detection for deforming necklaces, Proceedings of 18th ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry, 2002


In this paper, we propose to study deformable necklaces --- flexible chains of balls, called beads, in which only adjacent balls may intersect. Such objects can be used to model macro-molecules, muscles, rope, and other `linear' objects in the physical world. In this paper, we exploit this linearity to develop geometric structures associated with necklaces that are useful in physical simulations. We show how these structures can be implemented efficiently and maintained under necklace deformation. In particular, we study a bounding volume hierarchy based on spheres built on a necklace. Such a hierarchy is easy to compute and is suitable for maintenance when the necklace deforms, as our theoretical and experimental results show. This hierarchy can be used for collision and self-collision detection. In particular, we achieve an upper bound of $O(n\log n)$ in two dimensions and $O(n^{2-2/d})$ in $d$-dimensions, $d\geq 3$, for collision checking. To our knowledge, this is the first sub-quadratic bound proved for a collision detection algorithm using predefined hierarchies. In addition, we show that the power diagram, with the help of some additional mechanisms, can be also used to detect self-collisions of a necklace in certain ways complementary to the sphere hierarchy.


 author = {Leonidas Guibas and An Nguyen and Daniel Russel and Li Zhang},
 title = {Collision detection for deforming necklaces},
 booktitle = {SCG '02: Proceedings of the eighteenth annual symposium on Computational geometry},
 year = {2002},
 isbn = {1-58113-504-1},
 pages = {33--42},
 location = {Barcelona, Spain},
 doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/513400.513405},
 publisher = {ACM Press},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},