Hyukjoon Kwon, HyungJune Lee, and John M. Cioffi. Cooperative Strategy by Stackelberg Games under Energy Constraint in Multi-hop Relay Networks. Proc. of IEEE Globecom, 2009.


This paper presents a cooperative relay strategy with a game-theoretic perspective. In multi-hop networks, each node needs to send traffic via relay nodes, which behave independently while staying aware of energy constraints. To encourage a relay to forward the packets, the proposed scheme formulates a Stackelberg game where two nodes sequentially bid their willingness weights to cooperate for their own benefits. Accordingly, all the nodes are encouraged to be cooperative only if a sender is cooperative and alternatively to be non-cooperative only if a sender is non-cooperative. This selective strategy changes the reputations of nodes depending on the amount of their bidding at each game and motivates them to maintain a good reputation so that all their respective packets can be treated well by other relays. This paper analyzes a Nash equilibrium from the proposed scheme and validates a sequential-move game by Stackelberg competition as opposed to a simultaneous-move game by Cournot competition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme turns non-cooperative nodes into cooperative nodes and increases the cooperative relaying stimulus all over the nodes. Thus, every node forwards other packets with higher probability, thereby achieving a higher overall payoff.


 author = {Hyukjoon Kwon and HyungJune Lee and John M. Cioffi},
 title = {Cooperative Strategy by Stackelberg Games under Energy Constraint in Multi-hop Relay Networks},
 booktitle = {IEEE Globecom'09},
 year = {2009},
 location = {Hawaii, USA},
 publisher = {IEEE},