Kusy B., Maroti M., Balogh G., Volgyesi P., Sallai J., Nadas A., Ledeczi A., Meertens L., Node Density Independent Localization, IPSN/SPOTS (2006).


This paper presents an enhanced version of a novel radio interferometric positioning technique for node localization in wireless sensor networks that provides both high accuracy and long range simultaneously. The ranging method utilizes two transmitters emitting radio signals at almost the same frequencies. The relative location is estimated by measuring the relative phase offset of the generated interference signal at two receivers. Here, we analyze how the selection of carrier frequencies affects the precision and maximum range. Furthermore, we describe how the interplay of RF multipath and ground reflections degrades the ranging accuracy. To address these problems, we introduce a technique that continuously refines the range estimates as it converges to the localization solution. Finally, we present the results of a field experiment where our prototype achieved 4 cm average localization accuracy for a quasi-random deployment of 16 COTS motes covering the area of two football fields. The maximum range measured was 170 m, four times the observed communication range. Consequently, node deployment density is no longer constrained by the localization technique, but rather by the communication range.