Evangelos Kalogerakis, Derek Nowrouzezahrai, Patricio Simari, James Mccrae, Aaron Hertzmann, and Karan Singh. 2009. Data-driven curvature for real-time line drawing of dynamic scenes. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 1, Article 11 (February 2009), 13 pages.


This article presents a method for real-time line drawing of deforming objects. Object-space line drawing algorithms for many types of curves, including suggestive contours, highlights, ridges, and valleys, rely on surface curvature and curvature derivatives. Unfortunately, these curvatures and their derivatives cannot be computed in real-time for animated, deforming objects. In a preprocessing step, our method learns the mapping from a low-dimensional set of animation parameters (e.g., joint angles) to surface curvatures for a deforming 3D mesh. The learned model can then accurately and efficiently predict curvatures and their derivatives, enabling real-time object-space rendering of suggestive contours and other such curves. This represents an order-of-magnitude speedup over the fastest existing algorithm capable of estimating curvatures and their derivatives accurately enough for many different types of line drawings. The learned model can generalize to novel animation sequences and is also very compact, typically requiring a few megabytes of storage at runtime. We demonstrate our method for various types of animated objects, including skeleton-based characters, cloth simulation, and blend-shape facial animation, using a variety of nonphotorealistic rendering styles.

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 author = {Kalogerakis, Evangelos and Nowrouzezahrai, Derek and Simari, Patricio and Mccrae, James and Hertzmann, Aaron and Singh, Karan},
 title = {Data-driven curvature for real-time line drawing of dynamic scenes},
 journal = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
 issue_date = {January 2009},
 volume = {28},
 issue = {1},
 month = {February},
 year = {2009},
 issn = {0730-0301},
 pages = {11:1--11:13},
 articleno = {11},
 numpages = {13},
 url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1477926.1477937},
 doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1477926.1477937},
 acmid = {1477937},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Real-time curvature, data-driven curvature, neural network regression, real-time line drawing, real-time nonphotorealistic rendering for deforming objects},